The seventy-four articles in this special issue present state-of-the-art algorithms and applications for hyperspectral image and signal processing. Algorithms address topics such as spectral unmixing, classification, target and anomaly detection, compression, data fusion, noise reduction. Applications include monitoring of vegetation and environment. The large number of papers included in this special issue is indicative of the high level of research activity, interest, and applications for hyperspectral image and signal analysis. The 5th Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing??Evolution in Remote Sensing (WHISPERS) was held on June 25??28, 2013 in Gainesville, FL, USA. WHISPERS 2013 received the technical sponsorship of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) and support from the University of Florida and the WHISPERS Foundation.